On ozone and its utilization
Ozone is especially known as a gas which forms an ozone layer protecting the Earth against the penetration of hazardous UV radiation. The name “ozone” was used for the first time by the German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1840 when he created ozone by electrolysis of diluted sulphuric acid. He used the Greek verb meaning “to give off a nice smell” to name the gas generated. It is an unstable gas heavier than air with a characteristic irritating smell.
Ozone is a very strong oxidizing agent; thanks to this fact, it is able to destroy various high-molecular substances, organic compounds and toxic substances. It has strong sterilization and disinfection effects and kills almost all known bacteria viruses and micro-organisms. Ozone finds its broad application in various industries. For example, it is used for treating water, both drinking and industrial ones. Ozone is used in the food processing industry for decontaminating foodstuff or food processing equipment and surfaces. It is used in health care for ozone therapy, as its positive effect upon the human organism has been demonstrated (in low concentrations). It has also found application in the chemical industry for oxidation processes, in various sectors of the food processing industry, in the textile industry for bleaching fibres and textiles and the paper-making industry for cellulose bleaching. At present, the use of ozone in disinfection is frequently discussed and is the best choice for hygienic care of frequently visited places and operations.
The OzonPro ozone generator is positioned in the disinfected space where it develops gas for the required period. The gas generated fills an enclosed space completely and penetrates into all crevices and pores of various materials. It has strong sterilization and disinfection effects and kills almost all known bacteria and viruses, including coronaviruses. The effect of ozone is about 50 times stronger and 3,000 times faster than the effect of chlorine – oxidation leads to the destruction of the cell walls of micro-organisms. The strong deodorizing effect then causes destruction of smelly substances and thus also the reduction of odour. The developed gas is unstable and reactive, heavier than air and it decomposes back to oxygen after a certain time. The time required for application as well as the time necessary for ozone reaction and decomposition back to oxygen is specified in the instruction manual.
Make sure that you will not use the room during the period of ozone treatment.
Remove any plants and pets from the room.
Ensure the elimination of access to the room for the other persons during ozone treatment and a safety break (a plate with a notice, potentially door locking, especially if you have small children).
Make sure that there is not increased humidity in the room (e.g. a shower room after use, after carpet wet cleaning, etc.); potentially eliminate humidity by ventilation or using a dehumidifier.
Position the ozone generator in the middle of the room in an optimum case and make sure that no objects prevent air flow from the generator. We recommend positioning it in the middle of a table, for example.
Turn the air conditioning system off or seal larger openings through which ozone could flow into the adjacent rooms. Close the windows.
Adjust the recommended time on the timer according to the table of ozone treatment times, see below. There is no reason to needlessly exceed the recommended times.
Start the generator and leave the room.
Position a warning plate with the notice “Do not enter, ozone treatment in process” on the door.
After ozonation is complete with the ozone generator, allow the ozone to act for the time specified in the ozonation time table. Do not enter the room during this period; ozone decomposition back to oxygen is taking place.
Then thoroughly ventilate the room for about 5-10 minutes.
When you can no longer smell ozone in the room, return plants and pets back and you can use the room freely again.
Metallic silver has been used in various forms since the Middle Ages because of its disinfection effects. However, advances in the field of nanotechnology have allowed the revelation of the extraordinary potential and broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties of the finely dispersed silver nanoparticles known also as colloidal silver. The antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles have been proved to be effective against a wide range of bacteria, including highly resistant strains (such as Staphylococcus aureus). The mechanisms of the effect can include damage and modification of the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria, damage to bacterial DNA replication, etc. The smaller the nanoparticles, the higher their antibacterial activity. Nanosilver is also highly effective against fungi and mould. It is in many ways even more effective than commercial fungicidal agents. When compared with ionic silver (Ag+), silver nanoparticles (Ag0) are considerably less toxic to human cells. A number of studies have been published recently demonstrating the effectiveness of nanosilver in suppressing a wide range of viral infections, including the flu, herpes simplex, hepatitis B, HIV viruses, respiratory tract infections, rotavirus and coronavirus infections. Nanosilver acts as an antiviral through a number of potential mechanisms, including suppression of the virus replication in human cells. Medicines for the treatment of coronavirus infections (such as Remdesivir), including MERS-Cov and SARS-Cov2, are focused, among others, on the prevention of virus genome replication. Additionally, the survival period of viruses (including SARS) and bacteria on surfaces containing silver or those impregnated with nanosilver is considerably shorter on those surfaces. That is also why colloidal silver offers a huge application potential in medicine, in the antimicrobial treatment of surfaces and in disinfection technologies. Nanosilver is used for disinfection of water and air, as well as areas and products in the fields of medicine, veterinary care, the textile industry and the food processing industry.
What are the differences between colloidal silver and ionic silver?
Colloidal silver can be distinguished from ionic silver very easily – just by looking. While a nanosilver dispersion is yellow to brown (its colour depends on the size of the nanoparticles and their concentration, or on the age of the dispersion), a solution of ionic silver is colourless. The presence of silver ions can be demonstrated in a simple way by adding a small quantity of kitchen salt solution (NaCl), which forms insoluble silver chloride (AgCl) with silver ions. Silver chloride is white and makes the solution milky (see picture). The products produced by electrolysis (using either DC or AC) are usually solutions of silver ions instead of a dispersion of colloidal silver (nanosilver).
In the picture above, on the left is "colloidal" silver from other manufacturers, commonly available in pharmacies and drugstores, the middle sample is laboratory-prepared ionic silver and on the right is colloidal silver produced by us. The figure shows the common salt test described above, where the silver ions formed a white milky turbidity, while our colloidal silver did not show any discoloration or turbidity.
In the figure can also be seen that the degree of turbidity of the left solution is significantly lower than in the middle sample, from which it can be concluded that the commercially available product contains significantly less silver than declared by the manufacturer.
You can compare electron microscope images below, ionic silver on the left (no nanoparticles are visible) and colloidal silver produced by us on the right (you can see nanoparticles of 20-40 nm).
Most manufacturers of nanosilver give the following recommendation: “The product should be stored in dark glass bottles – without access to sunlight and out of the reach of electromagnetic fields (TV, radio, fridge)”. These precautions are unnecessary in the case of colloidal silver as they only apply to ionic solutions.
- Colloidal silver containing only silver nanoparticles does not need to be stored in glass bottles. It does not react with plastic surfaces so it can be supplied in transparent PET bottles, which allow visual inspection of the product quality.
- On the contrary, ionic silver (incorrectly called colloidal silver by a number of manufacturers) is light sensitive and reacts with plastic surfaces, which is why it is often supplied in opaque glass bottles, which do not allow visual inspection of the product quality.
- An electromagnetic field does not affect colloidal silver negatively, however, it does affect ionic silver.
- Storage in a fridge (cool conditions) decelerates the agglomeration of the colloidal silver, thus extending its shelf life. However, the dispersion should not be exposed to freezing.
Colloidal silver marketing
Unfortunately, most products called “colloidal silver” primarily contain silver in the form of ions. This means true silver solutions rather than colloidal dispersions. It results explicitly from the definition of colloid (colloidal dispersion) that it is a heterogeneous system of ultra-fine metallic particles distributed in the dispersion phase (in a liquid in this case), the properties of which are strongly affected by their huge surface area. On the contrary, ions are defined as atoms with one or more missing or redundant electrons.
Colloidal silver should then be formed by metallic silver nanoparticles. Metallic silver is not deprived of an electron so it does not react with other elements, while ionic silver is highly reactive and consequently forms compounds with other elements (see the abovementioned chlorides and the test with common salt).
Other favourite marketing terms include: mono-atomic silver, silver hydrosol, or silver water. In the vast majority, these terms mean the products containing silver ions rather than nanoparticles. Don’t be fooled by these terms and require a product analysis from your supplier (a picture from an electron microscope which shows nanoparticles; size distribution analysis – e.g. using the DLS (dynamic light scattering) method, etc.). Some manufacturers boast about beautifully sounding methods, but, it is worth making sure such methods really exist. Especially if a colourless product is concerned in which the manufacturer declares the contents of metallic silver nanoparticles with sizes of particles in the order of units up to tens of nanometres and a concentration higher than 1 PPM – such products should not be colourless in our opinion.